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The Diaries of Jose Rizal

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Virtual Travels of Rizal
Life and Writings of Dr. José Rizal
Rizal's Heritage Trail in Germany
Knights of Rizal, Europe Area Council

November 2nd, 2004



Magdeburger Leipziger station.

On the 21st of October I went to Halle from the Magdeburger Leipziger station. The third class round trip ticket cost me 2.10 marks. In the coach there were one old woman, a young woman, and myself. Afterwards one man joined us. The plain is well cultivated and populated. Pine trees grow on the banks at certain distances. In the distance can be seen poplars surrounding the towns.

Schkeuditz, marktplatz mit ponykutsche.

We pass Schkeuditz, 14 kilometers from Leipzig. Afterwards began the 2.2 kilometers from Leipzig, 9:30. In this part of Germany, perhaps because of the level sound, I see many windmills.

Halle bahnhof.

The market place and side of Hotel de Ville, Halle, German Saxony, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

Theatre and Promenade, Halle, German Saxony, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

At 9:40 o'clock we arrive at Halle.

0'05/20 101/120 solution of nitrate of silver

Sublimat 20:10,000 = Borsandre 4/0
Cocaine 2/0 = Berlin Schweiger

In 22 months they have 10,800 patients

Medical Ophthalmoscopy

I have eaten luncheon for one mark, tip and beer included.

Halle, sternwarte.

An observatory in the middle of the park.

Halle Universitaet, 1904.

An Explanation of Genesis at the University of Halle.

2:25 = 21 October 1886.

The majority of the students of theology become priests. The course of study is from six to eight semesters. They are taught the history of Catholicism

The professor speaks: it is not genesis: the Pentateuch. First part, hour -- Nebum -- Getabum

Genesis liber die. Gründung Gottesreiches in Israel -- Pentateuch = Gesetzbuch. Lepner la tora o vapros = Eodo 11 -- 14

Notice to Girls, etc.

In German newspapers it is usual to find announcements for housekeepers, companions, maids, servants, etc. The interested parties are requested to present themselves at certain stations in Holland, France, or England. The Rotterdam Association, in order to abolish prostitution, warns women and girls to be very careful with such advertisements. I return to Leipzig in an express train.

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October 28th, 2004


Leipzig, 14 October 1886

Napoleonstein bei Leipzig, 1908.

I arrived at this city two months ago and until now I cannot complain against it. I find everything cheaper than anywhere else in Europe. Four days a week I go to the gymnasium for a fee of 75 pfennigs monthly. It is said that more than one thousand five hundred of the students here work and this gymnasium is one of the most important in Germany.

Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig. Rückzug Napoleons über den Rhein.

I have visited what is called Napoleonstein located on the west side from where Napoleon watched the battle of 18 June 1813.

The museum, Augusta Platz, Leipsig (i.e., Leipzig), Saxony, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

I have also seen the fete of Sedan or the Sedanfeier on the 1st and 2nd of September. During the fete the beautiful fountain in front of the museum was inaugurated. It was built at the expense of a lady. It is red granite with bronze statues, sea-horses, tritons, sirens, and genii. It is very well made and moulded and every figure is in pairs.

Ten unidentified Silipanes (an Ifugao subgroup) with females wearing skirts and jewelery, Nueva Viscaya, Luzon, Philippines. Photo by Adolf B. Meyer and Alexander Schadenberg, ca. 1887.

I have made the acquaintance of Doctor Hans Meyer1, author of one of the largest encyclopedic dictionaries of Germany. This gentleman is the chief of the Bibliographical Institute and traveled in the Philippines exactly two months after I have left my country. He presented me with a copy of his little book on the Igorots.2 I have been correcting the proofs of a guide to conversation in Spain.3

Brauerei Reudnitz.

Yesterday in the company of a schoolteacher named Hering I visited one of the two largest breweries in North Germany. It is located in Reudnitz; it is the property of Mr. Riebek; and it is as old as I am, having been founded in 1861. It is colossal. They made us visit, among other things, the storerooms where beer is preserved whose cold temperature is due to natural ice and the machinery. We visited one of the 30 divisions where 45 to 50 large barrels with a diameter of 2:50 to 3 meters each, are kept. It is estimated that the daily production is some one hundred thousand liters of beer. We have also seen the department where leavening is made in large cauas4 which reminded me not a little of those of sugar. There are even steam apparatus for the washing of the barrels, etc. One of the curious things that I saw is the apparatus for cooling beer in a short time.

The beer that falls from above "A" is still steaming as it passes through pipes with running cold water inside. When it reaches "B" it has a temperature of 4 degrees. Such a rapid change takes place in a few seconds. After this we were invited to drink beer in one of the rooms. I had to take 3 glasses and I left completely merry. I am told that the lowest pay of a schoolteacher here is 1,400 marks; the maximum is 3,200 marks.

1Hans Meyer. German ethnologist. -- AN

2Did he mean the first volume of Meyer's "Album von Philippinen-typen" (Dresden: W. Hoffmann, 1885)? Or did Meyer, prior to 1886, write another monograph on the Philippines apart from "Uber die negritos der Philippinem" (Batavia, 1873)? -- AN

3This notation seems to indicate that Rizal was working for a publishing house at Leipzig as a corrector of copy, for he was then in need of money for the printing of his novel Noli me tángere. See his letter to his brother dated Leipzig, 12 October 1886.

4Or kawas, vats.

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October 26th, 2004



Market place and Hotel de Ville, Leipsig (i.e., Leipzig), Saxony, Germany,between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

I arrived at Leipzig at 9:30 in the morning and I left my luggage at the station in order to look for a house.

Although it was Sunday and rainy, Leipzig pleased me and surprised me with its magnificent public buildings, wide and clean streets, and amiable inhabitants.

University and Mendebrunnen, Leipsig (i.e., Leipzig), Saxony, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

I took refuge at the University from the shower and there on the bulletin board I read a sad thing: A very severe decision against a student announcing to the public that the young Frederick Wensel is forever expelled from all universities because his conduct makes him unworthy to attend classes. This announcement is signed by the Rector and the Judge of the University. After much walking I found a room at number 40, Albertstrasse, for 21 marks, breakfast and service included. I got my luggage and I am now installed in it. The carriage and the deposit cost me 80 pfennigs. Until now I like Leipzig.

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October 21st, 2004



Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

On the following morning there is much activity at the station. Dressed in Sunday clothes the people are going on short excursions. Some however are going farther perhaps judging by the tearful farewells and repeated adieus. The Germans have a notable convenience in their system of transportation: While in Spain hardly two trains daily leave for one point, here as many as 17 leave, and the third class is better than the second class there. Erfurt has a garrison of 3.000; its fortifications, however, are sinking and falling out. There are streetcars, but the railroad station is uncovered, although the building is quite large. The general the women are of regular stature, perhaps small for German women, and do not look very healthy. Erfurt is the place where I have seen the most stores of meat and sausages, relatively speaking. They save light during moonlit nights for the moon hardly shines in Germany. The sky remains blue. Nevertheless last night the moon shone splendidly in the sky and I could see it on the banks of the Gera through the poplars outlining the towers of the Catholic churches. The streets remain dark. At the station there are two dumb men who can understand each other perfectly through signs.

At 6:53 o'clock I leave Erfurt and I go directly to Leipzig, changing trains at Corbetha.1 We pass a bridge over the Gera. We are in a fast train. The environs are well cultivated and planted. The poplar can be seen in the distance; red flowers adorn the roadsides.

The castle, Weimar, Thuringia, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

Without stopping at any station we arrive at Weimar at 7:20 o'clock. Weimar has a beautiful station with columns of composite order with many floral decorations. The landscape is beautiful and the horizon is extensive and vast. We pass through Apolda, Gross Hesingen at 8:10 o'clock (Bebra is 210.4 kilometers from Halle). At the right we see the Rudolsburg ruins. The Saale flows by; we pass Koesen at 8:00.

General view, Naumburg on the Saale, Saxony, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

Naumburg at 8:25 o'clock, the station is beautiful and simple.

Corbetha, Bahnhof, 3 Ansichten, Gustav Adolf-Denkmal, Pferdekutsche.

In Corbetha we had to ride in a coach solely for military men. There is a sign which says: Lasst se nur gehre. (sic)

Durrenberg: We leave with many passengers. The coach makes a lot of noise.

I am passing through the place where three great battles had been Frederick the Great, Gustavus Adolphus, and Napoleon I Why does not laurel grow here instead of wheat and potatoes!


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October 19th, 2004


Saturday 14

Die Reiterschlacht von Hanau. Erstellt 1814. WVN 1031. Albertina Wien

The plain where Napoleon fought was wide. Now it is planted to potatoes. We arrive at Sangensebold at 12:12 o'clock.

(Liechtenstein is a small country which can offer 13 1/2 men in time of war.1

We are going through Prussian territory now.

Gelnhausen, Marienkirche.

Gelnhausen is an old city. From afar it looks like a pile of bricks, situated at the foot of a mountain of red granite. The church is Gothic. Here we stop for 3 minutes. A storm is coming; the wind is blowing hard. The Empress of Austria has just arrived at this moment at Gelnhausen.

Gelnhausen, Barbarossa Burg.

We have seen the ruins of the castle which Frederick Barbarossa built here. The train ascends gently. We arrive at Wachtersbach at 12:30 o'clock in the afternoon. This city is located in about one third of the road from Frankfurt to Bebra. I'm sleepy. We arrive at Salmünster at 1:20 o'clock. Here there is a castle called Stolzenberg. We are in the mountains of Vogel1 or bird. We stop at Schlüchtern. The train is running with two locomotives because of the ascent. This region is very mountainous and reminds me of northern Spain. In Elm we stopped and ascended the mountain in zigzag. The top of the mountain is planted to birch trees; the rock is red. Beautiful red flowers grow on the slopes of the mountain. The mountain top is plain and cultivated. Over the mountain we pass through Neuhof and Kerzell.

Fulda, Panorama.

At 1:20 we arrive at Fulda, the famous reputed cradle of apocryphal books which so becloud history and the Spanish religion. Here are the remains of St. Boniface and its numerous churches proves its ancient origin as an abbey. Here all the bishops of Germany assemble.

At our right I see the mountains of Thuringia. We are crossing rapidly part of the Haune.

In Hünfeld there is a factory of beet sugar. We arrive at 3:12. At Burgharm we arrive at 3:50. Nearby is a tunne which is quite short. Neukirche at 3:10. For the first time I see in Germany a herd of cattle near Hersfeld. In Hersfeld there is a gymnasium and the gymnasts wear caps like the students. Bebra is still 13 kilometers away. Bebra is 164,94 kilometers from Frankfurt. The Fulda River runs along our side on the right side of the road; not a very wide river, only about ten meters. It has more water than the Manzanares. There is an old wooden bridge over it. Here the rocks and the soil are red. At Mecklar we hardly stop. The first station, which follows, is Bebra where I hope we shall eat.

In Bebra I went down to eat, thinking that we would be allowed one hour; but I have hardly begun when we were called to the train. This game cost me 1:50 marks. We continue our trip. It rains. We pass a tunnel in the forests of Thuringia. We arrived at Gerstungen at 5:10. The houses in this place are painted red or they are made of very red bricks.

Southwest side, Wartburg,Thuringia, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

The ruins of the old Wartburg Castle can be seen on the right of Herteshausen. We arrive at Eisenach 5:25 o'clock. The Wartburg Castle can be seen at the right before entering the station.

Eisenach, Thuringia, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

We left Eisenach at 6:20. We pass Wutha (take note that in this region abound names ending in "a" which is flat in German). Froesstadt is a small city.

Gotha, with Inselberg, Thuringia, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

At 7:25 we arrive at Gotha.

General view, Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany, between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900.

About eight o'clock we arrive at Erfurt, a city of 53,000 inhabitants, gloomy, paved, and with old houses, on the banks of the Gera a small river and gloomy like the city. Here took place the famous interview of Napoleon with kings, emperors, and princes who were courting his favor. The majority of the population is Catholic. I have seen two old bas-reliefs on the walls: one representing St. John the Baptist and the other, Christ crucified. The post office building is beautiful. The inhabitants must be very poor. I have not seen one passable restaurant. I take lodgings in the Silber which is not expensive.

The meat dishes are prepared differently from those in south of Germany. One eats well.

1 Located between Switzerland and Austria, on the Rhine, it is an independent principality with an area of 62 square miles.

2 Vogels Berg.

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